Conflicting interpretations accompany historical developments and stimulate their public perception, because what is always fought over is that which a society values as true, fair or legitimate. A glance at the causes or effects of wars and peace agreements, the foundation of nation states or the decline of the polity as a result of social, economic or cultural upheavals has led to and continues to lead to conflicting interpretations, which are often influenced by current concerns. For example, the fierce debates since the 1960s about responsibility for the First World War have been influenced by the catastrophic impact of the Second World War. The future is negotiated to a large extent through competing interpretations of the past. Conflicting interpretations, therefore, are an important vehicle for social and academic debates about the past. They can be a force for integration as well as division, as can be seen in the ambivalent approaches of many eastern (and central) European nations to their history.
Contemporary conflicting interpretations are important sources for historians about contradictory or mutually beneficial ideas of order, perspectives and knowledge practices. Historical inquiry can reveal narratives and discourses, and their origins, developments and interconnections, through its methodological approaches. This, in turn, enables a more profound understanding of the complexity of the present and competing points of view. Conflicting interpretations, therefore, lead not least towards methodological reflections on the foundations of historical knowledge. The engagement with methodological approaches is fundamentally essential today in light of dynamically changing frameworks, such as accelerating change in the media and limitations on academic freedom. Debates about conflicting interpretations are perhaps even more necessary now than ever before when we are faced with politicised claims about the results of scientific research, in order to make visible the political and social contexts of ideas and actions.